Cannabinoid receptor 2: potential role in immunomodulation and neuroinflammation

An accumulating body of evidence suggests that endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 (CB(1), CB(2)) play a significant role in physiologic and pathologic processes, including cognitive and immune functions. While the addictive properties of marijuana, an extract from the Cannabis plant, are well recognized, there is growing appreciation of the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in multiple pathologic conditions involving chronic inflammation (inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, autoimmune disorders, multiple sclerosis, HIV-1 infection, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease to name a few), mainly mediated by CB(2) activation.

Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action

After the elucidation of the chemical structure of cannabidiol in 1963, the initial studies showed that cannabidiol was unable to mimic the effects of Cannabis. The last five years have shown a remarkable increase in publications on cannabidiol mainly stimulated by the discovery of its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. These studies have suggested a wide range of possible therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on several conditions, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral ischemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory diseases, nausea and cancer.

Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist

The pharmacology, therapeutic uses, safety, drug-drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions of medical marijuana are reviewed, and the legal issues related to its use and the implications of medical marijuana for the pharmacist are presented. Several states have legalized the use of marijuana for chronic and debilitating medication conditions. Pharmacists need to understand the complex legal framework surrounding this issue so that they can protect themselves and better serve their patients.

Enhancing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Cancer Treatment With Cannabinoids

Over the years, many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the anti-neoplastic effects of cannabinoids (CBDs), with reports advocating for investigations of combination therapy approaches that could better leverage these effects in clinical translation. This study explores the potential of combination approaches employing CBDs with radiotherapy (RT) or smart biomaterials toward enhancing therapeutic efficacy during treatment of pancreatic and lung cancers.

Speechlessness in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: Cannabis-Based Medicines Improve Severe Vocal Blocking Tics in Two Patients

We report the cases of two young German male patients with treatment-resistant Tourette syndrome (TS), who suffer from incapacitating stuttering-like speech disfluencies caused by vocal blocking tics and palilalia. Both treatments provided significant symptom improvement of vocal blocking tics as well as of comorbid conditions and were well tolerated. Thus, cannabis-based medicine appears to be effective in treatment-resistant TS patients with vocal blocking tics.