Purpose of review: Growing numbers of patients, consuming cannabinoids admitted to surgery, create a challenge to anesthesia providers. This review provides a summary of recent literature related to cannabis and anesthesia, with specific recommendations to the anesthetic management of medical cannabis consumers.
Recent findings: At present, cannabis has found its way to public consensus in many countries and is penetrating slower to different medical fields. We relate and discuss recent findings investigating effects of cannabis consumption on the various aspects including perioperative measures, post-operative pain, PONV, cardiovascular stability, and anesthesia monitoring.
Summary: Recent surveys estimate that 10-20% of adult populations have consumed cannabis in the past year. Medical cannabis consumers are a newer group of cannabis users. Anesthesia providers have to update their knowledge on cannabis and possible anesthetic interaction. It is unreasonable to make recommendations that apply to the whole heterogeneous group of cannabis users, but is easier with the more homogenous group of Medical cannabis users, characterized by frequent use and relatively high cannabis doses, combined with good knowledge of administered composition and protocol, as well as adverse and withdrawal effects. Anesthesia providers have to know the effects and modify anesthetic plan accordingly. We provide perioperative anesthetic recommendations related to medical cannabis consumers. Collecting information of the effects of medical cannabis use in perioperative setting will further create a highly useful database for anesthetics in the close future.