An advanced Mendelian Cannabis breeding program has been developed utilizing chemical markers to maximize the yield of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. Specific chemovars may produce enhanced analgesia, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety effects, while simultaneously reducing sequelae of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol such as panic, toxic psychosis, and short-term memory impairment.
The endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic exploitation in multiple sclerosis: Clues for other neuroinflammatory diseases
Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, caused by an autoimmune response against myelin that eventually leads to progressive neurodegeneration and disability. Although the knowledge on its underlying neurobiological mechanisms has considerably improved, there is a still unmet need for new treatment options, especially for the progressive forms of the disease. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical studies that could explain the therapeutic action of cannabinoid-based medicines, as well as the medical potential of modulating endocannabinoid signaling in multiple sclerosis, with a link to other neuroinflammatory disorders that share common hallmarks and pathogenetic features.
Interest in and use of marijuana by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) has increased. While potential benefits have been reported, so have concerns about potential risks. Few large studies have been conducted about the perceptions and current usage of marijuana and medical cannabinoids in persons with MS. The majority of responders favor legalization and report high interest in the use of marijuana for treatment of MS symptoms, but may be reluctant to discuss this with health care providers. Health care providers should systematically inquire about use of marijuana
This review illustrates some brief considerations of the medical use of cannabis recently issued in Italy. History and uses of cannabis throughout centuries and different countries are illustrated together with a description of botany and active phytocannabinoids. Then, medical use of cannabis anti-pain treatment for patients resistant to conventional therapies is described in case of chronic neuropathic pain, spasticity, for anticinetosic and antiemetic effect in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, for appetite stimulating effect in cachexia, anorexia, loss of appetite in cancer patients or patients with AIDS and in anorexia nervosa, hypotensive effect in glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies and for reduction of involuntary body and facial movements in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
[Beneficial Effect of Medical Cannabis in the Treatment of a Pharmacoresistant Nausea Associated with a Somatoform Disorder in a Patient with Post-Polio Syndrome]
We report a 79-year-old patient with post-polio syndrome (PPS). In the course of this disease, recurrent upper abdominal pain and a therapy-resistant nausea developed without vomiting. In addition, the patient was limited by the combination of muscular weakness, obesity, dietary-treated diabetes and a degenerative spinal cord injury significantly in its mobility and physical capacity. Cannabis is a treatment option for treatment-resistant symptoms as part of a PPS.
Simple and Fast Gas-chromatography Mass Spectrometry Assay to Assess Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in Dogs Treated with Medical Cannabis for Canine Epilepsy
A reliable, fast, accurate, simple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of THC and CBD in plasma samples of eight dogs under therapeutic treatment for epilepsy and receiving oral administration of medical cannabis (Bediol). The validated method was successfully applied to real samples; moreover, to assess the potential of the method applicability and robustness in future veterinary clinical studies on cannabinoids therapy, we attempted to follow the kinetic of THC and CBD in the plasma of two dogs under therapy at different times after Bediol administration.
Canada is on the cusp of an unprecedented change in its governmental approach to recreational cannabis consumption. By July of 2018 the country will legalize and regulate recreational cannabis use across the country via the implementation of the Cannabis Act, representing the second country in the world and the first in North America to do so. As other countries around the world struggle with illegal cannabis consumption, the Canadian example and novel regulatory scheme could prove a useful guiding tool for future policy in other jurisdictions. The following paper discusses key areas to watch and a brief intro of how Canada got to where it is and the foundational need for a shift in policy.
Cannabis has been employed medicinally throughout history, but its recent legal prohibition, biochemical complexity and variability, quality control issues, previous dearth of appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, and lack of pertinent education have conspired to leave clinicians in the dark as to how to advise patients pursuing such treatment. Suggestions are offered on cannabis-drug interactions, patient monitoring, and standards of care, while special cases for cannabis therapeutics are addressed: epilepsy, cancer palliation and primary treatment, chronic pain, use in the elderly, Parkinson disease, paediatrics, with concomitant opioids, and in relation to driving and hazardous activities.
Prospective analysis of safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in large unselected population of patients with cancer
Cancer is a major public health problem as the leading cause of death. Palliative treatment aimed to alleviate pain and nausea in patients with advanced disease is a cornerstone of oncology. In 2007, the Israeli Ministry of Health began providing approvals for medical cannabis for the palliation of cancer symptoms. The aim of this study is to characterize the epidemiology of cancer patients receiving medical cannabis treatment and describe the safety and efficacy of this therapy. Cannabis as a palliative treatment for cancer patients seems to be well tolerated, effective and safe option to help patients cope with the malignancy related symptoms.
Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Reduction in Activated and Inflammatory Immune Cell Frequencies in Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals
Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune activation has not been well defined. While the clinical implications are unclear, our findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with a potentially beneficial reduction in systemic inflammation and immune activation in the context of antiretroviral-treated HIV infection.